Ubuntu下安装Naginx, PHP5(及PHP-FPM),MySQL

环境:ubuntu 12.0.4 LTS 
nginx(发音”engine x”)是一个随便,开放源码,高性能的HTTP
server。Nginx以稳定,充分的功效集,简单的配置,和低资源消耗而闻明。本文将向你显得怎么在ubuntu
12.0.4 LTS 上设置Nginx,php5(及php-fpm),mysql。

一:安装前做个简易的印证

自家利用的域名为example.com,ip地址是218.198.177.252。你可以视具体意况更改这一个设置。在下文中自己将采纳root权限安装所需软件,所以请先切换到root用户:sudo
su

二:安装MySQL

apt-get install mysql-server mysql-client

安装过程会唤醒您为MySQL root 用户提供一个密码—-这么些密码对
root@localhost可用,同时对root@example.com也可用,由此你需要手动为MySQL
root用户指定一个密码: 
New password for the MySQL “root” user: <– yourrootsqlpassword 
Repeat password for the MySQL “root” user: <– yourrootsqlpassword

三:安装Nginx

apt-get install nginx

1,启动nginx 
/etc/init.d/nginx start

2,打开浏览器输入http://127.0.0.1,如果看到Welcome to
nginx!,则印证安装成功,ubuntu 12.0.4 LTS上nginx默认的网站根目录在
/usr/share/nginx/www。

四:安装PHP5

PHP5可以在nginx上通过PHP-FPM(PHP—FPM(Fast(Fast)CGI Process Manager)
是一个可选的
Fast(Fast)CGI,添加了部分了部分很有用的表征,特别是对于繁忙的站点)工作。 
证实:Nginx不辅助对表面程序的直接调用或分析,所有的表面程序(包括PHP)必须通过FastCGI接口调用。

apt-get install php5-fpm

PHP-FPM是一个护理进程(init脚本文件在/etc/init.d/php5-fpm),它运行了一个法斯特(Fast)(Fast)CGI
server,端口是 9000。

五:配置 nginx,以下是自身本机的配置文件。

1,nginx的安排文件在/etc/nginx/nginx.conf, vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
如下:

user www-data;        //指定Nginx Worker 进程运行用户及用户组
<!-- lang: php -->
worker_processes 4;      / /指定Nginx开启的进程数,每个Nginx进程平均耗费10M-20M内存。
<!-- lang: php -->
pid /var/run/nginx.pid;    //用来指定进程id的存储文件的位置
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
events {                      //用来指定Nginx的工作模式,及连接上限数
<!-- lang: php -->
           use epoll;       
<!-- lang: php -->
           worker_connections 768;
<!-- lang: php -->
           # multi_accept on;
<!-- lang: php -->
}
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
http {
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->
        # Basic Settings    //基本的设置
<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        sendfile on;
<!-- lang: php -->
        tcp_nopush on;
<!-- lang: php -->
        tcp_nodelay on;
<!-- lang: php -->
        keepalive_timeout 65;
<!-- lang: php -->
        types_hash_max_size 2048;
<!-- lang: php -->
        # server_tokens off;
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        # server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
<!-- lang: php -->
        # server_name_in_redirect off;
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        include /etc/nginx/mime.types;
<!-- lang: php -->
        default_type application/octet-stream;
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->
        # Logging Settings   //指定日志的存放路径
<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log;
<!-- lang: php -->
        error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->
        # Gzip Settings         //开启Gzip 压缩
<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        gzip on;
<!-- lang: php -->
        gzip_disable "msie6";
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
         gzip_vary on;
<!-- lang: php -->
         gzip_proxied any;
<!-- lang: php -->
         gzip_comp_level 6;
<!-- lang: php -->
         gzip_buffers 16 8k;
<!-- lang: php -->
         gzip_http_version 1.1;
<!-- lang: php -->
         gzip_types text/plain text/css application/json application/x-javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->
        # nginx-naxsi config
<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->
        # Uncomment it if you installed nginx-naxsi
<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        #include /etc/nginx/naxsi_core.rules;
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->
        # nginx-passenger config
<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->
        # Uncomment it if you installed nginx-passenger
<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        #passenger_root /usr;
<!-- lang: php -->
        #passenger_ruby /usr/bin/ruby;
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->
        # Virtual Host Configs      //虚拟主机的配置
<!-- lang: php -->
        ##
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
        include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
<!-- lang: php -->
        include /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*;
<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->

<!-- lang: php -->
}
<!-- lang: php -->
#mail {
<!-- lang: php -->
#       # See sample authentication script at:
<!-- lang: php -->
#       # http://wiki.nginx.org/ImapAuthenticateWithApachePhpScript
<!-- lang: php -->
#
<!-- lang: php -->
#       # auth_http localhost/auth.php;
<!-- lang: php -->
#       # pop3_capabilities "TOP" "USER";
<!-- lang: php -->
#       # imap_capabilities "IMAP4rev1" "UIDPLUS";
<!-- lang: php -->
#
<!-- lang: php -->
#       server {
<!-- lang: php -->
#               listen     localhost:110;
<!-- lang: php -->
#               protocol   pop3;
<!-- lang: php -->
#               proxy      on;
<!-- lang: php -->
#       }
<!-- lang: php -->
#
<!-- lang: php -->
#       server {
<!-- lang: php -->
#               listen     localhost:143;
<!-- lang: php -->
#               protocol   imap;
<!-- lang: php -->
#               proxy      on;
<!-- lang: php -->
#       }
<!-- lang: php -->
#}
<!-- lang: php -->

2,虚拟主机被定义在server{}中,默认文件在/etc/nginx/sites-available/default,vim
/etc/nginx/sites-available/default。

server {

    listen   80; ## listen for ipv4; this line is default and implied
    listen   [::]:80 default ipv6only=on; ## listen for ipv6
    root /usr/share/nginx/www;
    index index.php index.html index.htm;
    # Make site accessible from http://localhost/
    server_name _;
    location / {
            # First attempt to serve request as file, then
            # as directory, then fall back to index.html
            try_files $uri $uri/ /index.html;
    }
    location /doc {
            root /usr/share;
            autoindex on;
            allow 127.0.0.1;
            deny all;
    }
    location /images {
            root /usr/share;
            autoindex off;
    }
    #error_page 404 /404.html;
    # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
    #
    error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
    location = /50x.html {
            root /usr/share/nginx/www;
    }
    # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
    #
    #location ~ \.php$ {
    #       proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1;
    #}
    # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
    #
    location ~ \.php$ {
            try_files $uri =404;
            fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index index.php;
            include fastcgi_params;
    }
    # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
    # concurs with nginx's one
    #
    location ~ /\.ht {
            deny all;
    }

}

3,保存文件,使配置生效 /etc/init.d/nginx reload

4,在Nginx的默认网站根目录创造一个PHP的测试文件 vim
/usr/share/nginx/www/info.php

phpinfo(); 
?>

5,打开浏览器输入http://127.0.0.1/info.php

你可以望见PHP5已经由此FPM/Fast(Fast)CGI工作了,具体可看Server
API这行。向下滚动可以看见所有的模块在PHP5中都是可用的,MySQL还从未被列出来,意味着MySQL还没帮助PHP5。

六:让MySQL支持PHP5

1,让MySQL辅助PHP5,大家得以设置php5-mysql包。此外的包,大家可以按需安装所急需的包,用apt-cache
search php5列出PHP的包,看下这个是你所需要的。

2,选取一些您所急需的包,象这样设置: 
apt-get install php5-mysql php5-curl php5-gd php5-intl php-pear
php5-imagick php5-imap php5-mcrypt php5-memcache php5-ming php5-ps
php5-pspell php5-recode php5-snmp php5-sqlite php5-tidy php5-xmlrpc
php5-xsl

3,重启PHP-FPM 
/etc/init.d/php5-fpm restart

4,打开浏览器,输入http://127.0.0.1/info.php,看下你安装的包是不是已经被支持了。

七:配置PHP-FPM

vim /etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf 或在 vim
/etc/php5/fpm/conf.d/下做更详尽的配备,不懂真人的默认就行了
,也不优化了。

八:在/etc/nginx/sites-available/default中新增一个虚拟主机。

自身的布置文件:

server {

    listen   80 ; ## listen for ipv4; this line is default and implied

listen [::]:80 default ipv6only=on; ## listen for ipv6

    root /web/example;
    index index.php index.html index.htm;

    # Make site accessible from http://localhost/
    server_name 218.198.177.252 example.com ;   //这个和apache一样的啦,写域名就行了

    location / {
            # First attempt to serve request as file, then
            # as directory, then fall back to index.html
            try_files $uri $uri/ /index.html;
            # Uncomment to enable naxsi on this location
            # include /etc/nginx/naxsi.rules
    }

    location /doc/ {
            alias /usr/share/doc/;
            autoindex on;
            allow 127.0.0.1;
            deny all;
    }

    # Only for nginx-naxsi : process denied requests
    #location /RequestDenied {
            # For example, return an error code
            #return 418;
    #}

    #error_page 404 /404.html;

    # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
    #
    #error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
    location = /50x.html {
            root /web/example;
    }

location ~ .php$ { //nginx处理静态的页面,动态的转给FastCGI处理

    #       fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.+)$;
    #       # NOTE: You should have "cgi.fix_pathinfo = 0;" in php.ini
    #
    #       # With php5-cgi alone:
             fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
    #       # With php5-fpm:
    #       fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;
             fastcgi_index index.php;
             include fastcgi_params;
    }

    # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
    # concurs with nginx's one
    #
    location ~ /\.ht {
            deny all;
    }

}

看下效果了,如过你的不成事,自己检查下….

参考资料: 
1,http://www.howtoforge.com/installing-nginx-with-php5-and-php-fpm-and-mysql-support-on-ubuntu-11.10 
2,http://www.howtoforge.com/installing-nginx-with-php5-and-php-fpm-and-mysql-support-on-ubuntu-11.10-p2 
3,张宴的《实战Nginx:取代Apache的高性能Web服务器》

http://my.oschina.net/syc2013/blog/283151

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